National Health Mission (NHM)
The National Health Mission (NHM) launched by the government. It encompasses two Sub-Missions which are the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and the National Urban Health Mission (NUHM). The main programmatic components include Health system strengthening in rural and urban areas, Reproductive-Maternal-Neonatal-Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A) and Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases and providing aids for these. The NHM envisthe ages achievement of universal access to equitable, affordable & quality healthcare services that are accountable and responsive to people’s needs in every part of the country.
For more details, one can visit the official website of National Health Mission (NHM) which is nhm.gov.in.
The two sub-missions under the National Health Mission (NHM) consists of the following functions:
- National Rural Health Mission (NRHM): NRHM seeks to provide quality healthcare to the rural population, especially the vulnerable groups of the society. Under the NRHM, the Empowered Action Group (EAG) States, as well as the North Eastern States, Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, have been given special focus as the people residing there are more vulnerable. The thrust of the mission is on establishing a fully functional, community owned, decentralized health delivery system with inter-sectoral convergence at all levels, to ensure simultaneous action on a wide range of determinants of health such as water, sanitation, education, nutrition, social and gender equality all over the states.
- National Urban Health Mission (NUHM): NUHM seeks to improve the health status of the urban population particularly urban poor and other vulnerable sections by facilitating their access to quality primary healthcare all over the country. NUHM covers all State capitals, district headquarters, Union Territories, and other cities/ towns with a population of 50,000 and above (as per census 2011) in a phased manner. Cities and towns with population below 50,000 will continue to be covered under NRHM.
The National Health Mission (NHM) was launched to fulfill the following objectives:
- Improved health status and quality of life of rural population with unequivocal and explicit emphasis on sustainable development measure.
- To reduce infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate.
- To ensure population stabilization.
- To prevent and control communicable and non-communicable diseases.
- To upgrade AYUSH(Aurvedic Yoga Unani Siddh and Homopath) for the promotion of healthy life style.
Key Performance Indicators
The success indicators for the National Health Mission (NHM) has proved its worth, these are:
- Reduced Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) to 258/ lac live births.
- Reduced Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 36/1000 births.
- Reduced Total Fertility Rate (TFR) to 2.8.
- Malaria mortality reduction rate by 60%.
- Kala-azar mortality reduction rate by 100%.
- Filaria/Microfilaria reduction by 80%.
- Leprosy Prevalence Rate-Less than 1 per 10000.
- Tuberculosis DOTS series- 85% cure rate & 70% detection of new sputum smear positive cases.
- Upgrading all Community Health Centres (CHCs) to Indian Public Health Standard(IPHS).
- Increased bed occupancy of First Referral Units (FRUs) greater than 75%.
- Engaging 1.23 lac ASHAs.
- Dengue mortality reduction by 50%
- Cataract operation – 42 lacs
- Under the National Blindness Control Programme (NBCP), the objective is to reduce the prevalence rate from 1% to 0.5.
- Brought down Total Goitre Rate (TGR) to less than 10%.
- Ensured that more than 9 of0% households consume iodized salt.
- Ensured availability of AYUSH by ensuring that at each block primary health centre (PHC), at least 2 Medical Officers(MOs), one of them AYUSH practitioner, are available all the time.
- Safe drinking water and sanitation facilities to greater than 60% of villages.
- Reduction of malnourished children by half of the present level.
ORGANOGRAM FOR NRHM IMPLEMENTATION AT STATE LEVEL
STRUCTURE OF STATE PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT UNIT (SPMU)
The structure for management of the programme interventions at the district level District PMUs would be established in all the 70 districts, is shown below:
A proposal for the establishment of a Divisional Programme Management Unit at each division headed by the Additional Director was proposed and approved by Government of India. The structure is given bellow:
Block Level Units
At the block level, two positions are recommended: Block Programme Manager; and Accounts Assistant. The structure is given below: