Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY)
The Central Government announced the launch of the Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY) when there was need to uplift and support the mining field of the country. This is a new programme launched in order to provide for the welfare of areas and people affected by mining related operations, using the funds generated by District Mineral Foundations (DMFs).
The most productive mining areas in the country are areas largely inhabited by scheduled tribes. They are also mainly located in the areas covered by the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India. The PMKKKY is, therefore, very sharply focused on safeguarding the health, environment and economic conditions of the tribal people and providing them with opportunities to benefit from the vast mineral resources that are extracted from the areas where they live.
The objectives of PMKKKY scheme includes:
- To implement various developmental and welfare projects and programs in mining affected areas that complement the existing ongoing schemes or projects of State and Central Government.
- To minimize and mitigate the adverse impacts, during and after mining, on the environment, health and socio-economics of people in mining districts.
- To ensure long-term sustainable livelihoods for the affected people living in mining areas. Care has been taken to include all aspects of living to ensure substantial improvement in the quality of life. High priority areas like drinking water supply, health care, sanitation, education, skill development, women and child care, welfare of aged and disabled people, skill development and environment conservation will get at least 60 % share of the funds.
For creating a supportive and conducive living environment, balance funds have been spent on making roads, bridges, railways, waterways projects, irrigation and alternative energy sources. This way, the government is facilitating mainstreaming of the people from lower strata of society, tribal people and forest-dwellers who have no wherewithal and are affected the most from mining activities.
Guidelines for Identification of Affected Areas and People to be Covered Under the PMKKKY
1. Affected areas: Affected areas include two types — Directly and Indirectly Affected Areas
a. Directly affected areas – These areas are those areas where direct mining-related operations such as excavation, mining, blasting, beatification and waste disposal (overburdened dumps, tailing ponds, transport corridors etc.), etc. are located.
- Villages and gram panchayats within which the mines are situated and are operational. Such mining areas may extend to neighboring village, block or district on even state.
- An area within such radius from a mine or cluster of mines as may be specified by the State Government, irrespective of whether this falls within the district concerned or adjacent district.
- Villages in which families displaced by mines have resettled/rehabilitated by the project authorities.
- Villages that significantly depend on the mining areas for meeting their economic needs and have usufruct and traditional rights over the project areas, for instance, for grazing, collection of minor forest produce etc. should be considered as directly affected areas.
b. Indirectly affected areas – These are those areas where local population is adversely affected on account of economic, social and environmental consequences due to mining-related operations. The major negative impacts of mining in these areas could be by way of deterioration of water, soil and air quality, reduction in stream flows and depletion of ground water, congestion and pollution due to mining operations, transportation of minerals, increased burden on existing infrastructure and resources.
2. Affected people: Affected people include these types of people as directly affected and indirectly affected:
- The following should include as directly affected people:
- ‘Affected family’ as defined under Section 3 (c) of the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
- ‘Displaced family’ as defined under Section 3 (k) of the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
- Any other as appropriately identified by the concerned gram sabha.
- Persons affected by mining should include people who have legal and occupational rights over the land being mined, and also those with traditional rights
- Affected families should be identified, as far as possible, in consultation with local/elected representatives of gram sabha.
- The DMF shall prepare and maintain an updated list of such affected persons/local communities.
Utilization of Funds
The funds provided by the government to implement for the welfare of affected people under the scheme Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana is divided as follows:
High priority areas – at least 60% of PMKKKY funds to be utilized under these heads:
- Drinking water supply –This include centralized purification systems, water treatment plants, permanent/temporary water distribution network including standalone facilities for drinking water, laying of piped water supply system.
- Environment preservation and pollution control measures – This include effluent treatment plants, prevention of pollution of streams, lakes, ponds, ground water, other water sources in the region, measure for controlling air and dust pollution caused by mining operations and dumps, mine drainage system, mine pollution prevention technologies, and measures for working or abandoned mines and other air, water & surface pollution control mechanisms required for environment-friendly and sustainable mine development.
- Health care –This emphasize the focus must be on creation of primary / secondary health care facilities in the affected areas. The emphasis should not be only on the creation of the health care infrastructure, but also on provision of necessary staffing, equipment and supplies required for making such facilities effective.
- Education – This includes construction of school buildings, Additional class rooms, Laboratories, Libraries, Art and crafts room, Toilet blocks, Drinking water provisions Residential Hostels for students/teachers in remote areas,, sports infrastructure, engagement of teachers/other supporting staff, e-learning setup, other arrangement of transport facilities (bus/van/cycles/rickshaws/etc.) and nutrition related programs.
- Welfare of Women and Children – The Special programmes for addressing problems of maternal and child health, malnutrition, infectious diseases, etc. can be taken up under the PMKKKY. f. Welfare of aged and disabled people – Special program for welfare of aged and disabled people.
- Skill development – This include skill development for livelihood support, income generation and economic activities for local eligible persons. The projects / schemes may include training, development of skill development center, self employment schemes, support to Self Help Groups and provision of forward and backward linkages for such self-employment economic activities.
- Sanitation– collection, transportation & disposal of waste, cleaning of public places, provision of proper drainage & Sewage Treatment Plant, provision for disposal of fecal sludge, provision of toilets and other related activities.
Other priority Areas – Up to 40% of the PMKKKY to be utilized under these heads
- Physical infrastructure – By providing required physical infrastructure – road, bridges, railways and waterways projects.
- Irrigation – By developing alternate sources of irrigation, adoption of suitable and advanced irrigation techniques.
- Energy and Watershed Development – The Development of alternate source of energy (including micro-hydel) and rainwater harvesting system. Development of orchards, integrated farming and economic forestry and restoration of catchments.
- Any other measures for enhancing environmental quality in mining district also comes under this.