Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)
The Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan is a scheme launch by Government of India in March, 2009. It was launched to enhance access to secondary education and improve its quality. The implementation of the scheme was started from the year 2009-10 to generate human capital and provide sufficient conditions for accelerating growth and development and equity as also quality of life for everyone in India. RMSA leverages support from a wide range of stakeholders including multilateral organisations, NGOs, advisors and consultants, research agencies and institutions. The scheme involves multidimensional research, technical consulting, implementation and funding support for betterment of society. RMSA covers 50,000 government and local body secondary schools all over India. Besides this, an additional of 30,000 aided secondary schools can also access the benefits of RMSA but they will not be able to get infrastructure and support facilities in core areas.
Overview of RMSA
Primary education acts as the basic enabling factor for participation, freedom and overcoming of basic deprivation; whereas secondary education facilitates economic development and establishment of social justice. Over the years, liberalisation and globalisation have led to rapid changes in scientific and technological world and have prompted the general needs of improved quality of life and reduced poverty, these days. This result in acquiring higher levels of knowledge and skills than what they are essentially imparted with throughout the eight years of elementary education.
Following the recommendations of New Education Policy of 1986 and Programme of Action, 1992, the Government of India initiated different schemes to support children of secondary and higher schools at different points of time. The IEDSS Girls’ Hostel, Vocational Education and ICT@schools schemes were start with the overall objective of providing accessible and relevant secondary education of good quality in India.
Objectives of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan
The Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) scheme was launched keeping in mind the following objectives:
- By providing a secondary school within reasonable distance of any habitation. The scheme envisages to achieve a gross enrollment ratio of 75% from 52.26% in 2005-06 for classes IX-X within 5 years of its implementation.
- To improve the quality of education imparted at secondary level by making all secondary schools conform to prescribed norms.
- To remove gender, socio-economic and disability barriers or discrimination.
- Provide universal access to secondary level education by 2017, i.e. by the end of the 12th Five Year Plan.
- To enhance and universalize retention by 2020.
Facilities of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan
The scheme provides with facilities in three ways; these are:
Physical Facilities: Physical facilities includes:
- Additional class rooms
- Art and crafts room
- Toilet blocks
- Drinking water provisions
- Residential Hostels for Teachers in remote areas
Quality Interventions: Quality interventions include:
- Appointment of additional teachers to reduce PTR to 30:1
- Focus on Science, Math and English education
- In-service training of teachers
- Science laboratories
- ICT enabled education
- Curriculum reforms
- Teaching learning reforms
Equity Interventions: Equity interventions include:
- Special focus in micro planning
- Preference to Ashram schools for upgradation
- Preference to areas with concentration of SC/ST/Minority for opening of schools
- Special enrollment drive for the weaker section
- More female teachers in schools
- Separate toilet blocks for girls
Implementation Mechanism of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan
- MHRD is the nodal central government ministry to coordinate RMSA with the help of State Implementation Societies (SIS) in each and every state of India.
- There are also a lot of support arrangements and institutions available for better implementation of RMSA.
- A National Resource Group (NRG) provides guidance for bringing reforms in teaching and learning processes, curriculum, teaching learning material, ICT education and mechanisms of monitoring and evaluation.
- The Technical Support Group (TSG) is also support by MHRD is a constituent of the NRG and has a direct reporting relationship with the ministry. TSG provides technical and operational support and expertise to national and state level teams assigned.
- Various sub-committees like Curriculum Reform Subcommittee, Teacher and Teacher Development Subcommittee, ICT Subcommittee and Planning and Management Subcommittee have been constituted under NRG. These subcommittees comprise members from the TSG which meet thrice a year to apprise themselves of the progress made on mutually set goals and commitments.
- NCERT and NUEPA support through dedicated RMSA units in every state.
- RMSA-TCA has been set-up for capacity building support with the assistance of DFID.
- In terms of financial inputs, the central share is release to the implementing agencies directly, while the applicable state share is also release to the agencies by the respective State Governments.